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The quality of the space in which we work has a direct impact on our health and well-being. The main benefits of a space designed with WELL criteria are stress reduction, improved cognitive performance, and greater ease in processing our emotions and moods with beneficial results for each of us.

Promote Tobacco Prevention

Reasons to stop smoking

  • You will live longer and with a better quality of life.
  • The smoke from your cigarettes will not harm the health of your children, your family members and all the people around you.
  • You will regain your ability to exercise, thanks to better oxygenation.
  • You will suffer less colds and colds; you will not have irritation of the throat and nose.
  • You will have significant money savings.
  • It will dramatically improve the appearance of your skin and teeth and eliminate bad breath.
  • Your clothes, your house, your car will stop smelling like an ashtray.
  • You will regain a taste for food and smell.
  • You will avoid conflicts and unpleasant situations since nobody will beat you for smoking in their presence.
  • You can go anywhere with ease to enjoy clean air. There are more and more places where smoking is not allowed.

More life without tobacco

At 20 minutes:

Heart rate and blood pressure return to their normal level.

Normal temperature of hands and feet is recovered.

At 8 hours:

The concentration of carbon monoxide in the blood drops to its normal level.

The concentration of oxygen in the blood rises to its normal level.

At 24 hours:

The risk of having a heart attack is already significantly reduced.

At 48 hours:

Increases the sharpness of taste and smell, as nerve endings begin to regenerate.

From two weeks to three months:

Remarkably improves circulation.

Increases lung function by up to 30%.

From one to nine months:

Decreases cough, nasal congestion, and shortness of breath.

Increases resistance to respiratory infections, by recovering the bronchial cilia.

At a year:

The risk of coronary insufficiency is 50% less than that of a smoker.

Mental Health

  • Mantén una actitud positiva
  • Keep a positive attitude
  • Eat healthy and get enough sleep
  • Take care of your body
  • Know and regulate your emotions
  • Take care of your personal relationships
  • Have an active life
  • Smile
  • Know yourself and love yourself
  • Turn problems into opportunities
  • Remember that you are not alone


What is work stress?

Work stress is one of the consequences of exposure to psychosocial risks. Specifically, it is generated due to a work situation in which adverse or unfavorable psychosocial conditions exist. Work stress is the response, both physical and emotional, to an imbalance between perceived demands and an individual's abilities to cope with those demands.

How does stress occur at work?

Stress is the response to an agent or stimulus, either internal or external, that is, to a stressor. From this perspective, in the workplace we find different classifications of stressors. The most common causes would be:

  • Lack of control over the work being done
  • The monotony
  • Tight deadlines
  • Work at high speed
  • Exposure to violence
  • Physically dangerous working conditions

Assess stress

Work stress depends both on objective psychosocial conditions and on the worker's interpretation of them, so it is advisable to use various evaluation methods and techniques simultaneously. In this sense, when evaluating stress, it is important to focus on looking for stressors, not stressed individuals.

Work stress can be evaluated using methods that analyze different working conditions as psychosocial risk factors. In this way, we will be able to identify and assess the magnitude of the sources of stress, that is, the stressors, and we will be able to intervene on them.

Also, and in a complementary way, its impact can be evaluated by analyzing the effects on workers' health. In this case we will know the possible damage to health caused by stress. For this type of evaluation, for example, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) can be used.

Precautionary measures

  • The adequate design or redesign of the jobs.
  • Redesign of work systems, through job enrichment, expansion of tasks, creation of work groups, etc.
  • The organization of the working day and working times, including shifts, breaks and breaks.
  • Carrying out an adequate personnel policy that takes into account the demands and needs of workers and that provides them with adequate resources through career planning, continuous training programs, etc.
  • Management and leadership style that allows the participation of workers, provides adequate feedback on performance and is motivating.
  • Clear definition of the competences of the workers.
  • Design or redesign of adequate information systems and communication channels.

- How are the effects or stress response manifested in workers?

  • Emotional manifestations: irritability, anxiety, sleep problems, depression, hypochondria, alienation, attrition, family problems).
  • Cognitive manifestations: difficulty concentrating, remembering, learning new things, making decisions.
  • Behavioral manifestations: drug, alcohol, tobacco abuse, destructive behavior.
  • Physiological manifestations: back problems, low defenses, peptic ulcers, cardiological problems, hypertension...

Burnout syndrome

The “burnout syndrome” or “work burn syndrome” (SQT) is a specific type of stress. It is a response to chronic work stress. Its main characteristics are the experience of being emotionally drained, depersonalization and a feeling of inadequacy.

Emotional exhaustion is at the core of the syndrome and is characterized by a growing feeling of physical and mental exhaustion at work.

What is techno-stress?

Specific stress derived from the introduction and use of new technologies at work, which entails negative psychosocial effects derived from the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). Specifically, it consists of a bad adaptation to deal with new technologies in a healthy way. Techno-stress is determined, and is increasing, by the invasion of mobile phones, e-mails, PDAs, etc. in daily life.


What is depression?

It is a mood disorder that causes symptoms of distress, affecting how you feel, think, and coordinate daily activities, such as sleeping, eating, or working. To receive a diagnosis of depression, symptoms must be present most of the day, almost every day, for at least two weeks.

Types of depression

Major (or severe) depression: When you have symptoms of depression most of the day, almost every day, for at least two weeks and these interfere with your ability to work, sleep, study, eat and enjoy life. It is possible for a person to have a single episode of major depression in their life, but it is more frequent to have multiple episodes.

Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia): when you have symptoms of depression that last for at least two years. The person who has been diagnosed with this type of depression may have episodes of major depression along with periods of less severe symptoms.

What are the signs and symptoms of depression?

  • Persistent feelings of sadness, anxiety or "emptiness"
  • Feelings of pessimism or lack of hope
  • Feelings of guilt, worthlessness or helplessness
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in activities and hobbies
  • Loss of energy, fatigue, or feeling slower
  • Difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions
  • Difficulty sleeping, waking up early, or sleeping too much
  • Changes in appetite or weight
  • Thoughts of death or suicide, or suicide attempts
  • Restlessness or irritability
  • Pains without apparent physical cause or that are not relieved by treatment

How is depression treated?

The first step in obtaining proper treatment is to consult with a health care provider or mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist or psychologist. Your healthcare provider may do an exam, interview, and lab tests to rule out other health problems that may have the same symptoms as depression. Once diagnosed, depression can be treated with medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. If these treatments do not decrease symptoms, another option that can be considered is brain stimulation therapy.

General anxiety

What is generalized anxiety disorder?

Anxiety is sometimes a normal part of life. We all worry about things like health problems, money, or family problems. However, people with generalized anxiety disorder are extremely worried or very nervous about these and many other things, even when there is little or no reason to worry. It is not easy for people with generalized anxiety disorder to control their anxiety and stay focused on daily activities.

What causes generalized anxiety disorder?

Sometimes generalized anxiety disorder runs in families, but no one knows for sure why some people have it and others don't. Researchers have discovered that there are various parts of the brain, as well as biological processes, that play a key role in fear and anxiety. By learning more about how the brain and body work in people with anxiety disorders, scientists may be able to create better treatments. Researchers are also trying to find out how stress and environmental factors influence the development of this disorder.


What is panic disorder?

People with panic disorder have sudden, repeated attacks of fear that last for several minutes or more. These are known as panic attacks. Panic attacks are characterized by fear of disaster or fear of losing control, even when there is no real danger. You can also have a strong physical reaction during a panic attack. You may feel like you are going to have a heart attack. Panic attacks can occur at any time. Many people with panic disorder worry and fear that they may have another attack.

What causes panic disorder?

Panic disorder sometimes runs in families, but no one knows for sure why some family members have it and others don't. Researchers have discovered that there are some parts of the brain and certain biological processes, which play a key role in fear and anxiety. Some researchers think that people with panic disorder misinterpret harmless body sensations as threats. As we learn more about how the brain and body works in people with panic disorder, scientists may find better treatments. Researchers are also looking at how stress and environmental factors can play a role.

What are the signs and symptoms of panic disorder?

  • Sudden and repeated panic attacks with overwhelming anxiety and fear
  • Feeling of being out of control or fear of death or impending doom during a panic attack
  • Physical symptoms during a panic attack, such as a fast or pounding heartbeat, excessive sweating, chills, tremors, breathing problems, weakness or dizziness, tingling or numbness of the hands, chest pain, stomach pain, and nausea
  • Intense concern about when the next panic attack will occur
  • Fear of going to places where they have had a panic attack in the past

How is panic disorder treated?

Psychotherapy. A type of psychotherapy called cognitive behavioral therapy is especially helpful in treating panic disorder. It teaches you different ways of thinking, behaving, and reacting to different situations to help you feel less anxious or worried. Panic attacks can begin to disappear once you learn to react differently to the physical feelings of anxiety and fear that occur during them.

How does addiction affect mental health?

Health consequences of drug addiction

Addicted people often have one or more drug-related health problems that can include lung or heart disease, stroke, cancer, or mental health problems. Scans, chest x-rays, and blood tests can check for the harmful effects of long-term drug use on the entire body.

For example, it is now well known that tobacco smoke can cause various types of cancer, methamphetamine can cause serious dental problems (known as “methamphetamine mouths”), and opioids can cause an overdose and cause death. Also, some drugs like inhalants can damage or destroy nerve cells in the brain or peripheral nervous system (the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord).

Drug use can also increase the risk of infection. By sharing items used for injecting drugs or engaging in unsafe sexual behavior (due to impaired judgment), it is possible to contract the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis C (a disease liver disease). It is also possible to contract infections of the heart and its valves (endocarditis) and of the skin (cellulite) due to exposure to bacteria that can occur with the consumption of injection drugs.

Mental disorders

Drugs and mental illness often coexist. In some cases, mental disorders like anxiety, depression, or schizophrenia may arise before addiction; in other cases, drug use can trigger or worsen these mental health disorders, particularly in people with certain specific vulnerabilities.

Some people with disorders like anxiety or depression can use drugs to try to alleviate psychiatric symptoms, which over time can exacerbate the mental disorder and increase the risk of creating addiction. Treatment of all coexisting problems must be simultaneous.


The importance of vaccination

Few preventive measures have had a greater effect in reducing mortality in the world population than immunizations. From a public health perspective, vaccines have proven to be the most cost-effective tool available to us

In the Community of Madrid, systematic vaccination programs have always had a very important follow-up, because of the confidence that both the population and health professionals have in vaccines.

It is important to keep in mind that the final objective of vaccination programs is to guarantee the control of immune preventable diseases in the entire population residing in our environment. It is of great importance to extend vaccination policies to all population groups in order to reinforce their impact on the control of communicable diseases.

Adult Vaccination

The Community of Madrid has an adult vaccination schedule that includes the vaccination recommendations from 18 years of age.

All adults with incomplete vaccination or not vaccinated in childhood should complete the vaccination schedule according to schedule:

  • For some diseases, the vaccination correction has no age limit, such as tetanus and diphtheria. For others, vaccination is recommended when the person has not passed the disease and is not immunized, such as with measles and rubella.
  • The calendar also contains indications of booster doses if immunity is lost over time.
  • Finally, since there is a lower response of the immune system in older people, which makes them more vulnerable, the calendar also includes vaccination recommendations from the age of 60.

Should I get vaccinated?

There are different circumstances that indicate the vaccination of the adult population, either for personal or seasonal reasons.

To find out if you need to be vaccinated or not, it is best to consult your healthcare professional, who will indicate if you need any immunization, as well as the center to go to if you need it.

There are special circumstances for vaccination in adults:

Over 60 years:

Flu: every year the Community of Madrid Health Network launches the influenza vaccination campaign, aimed at older people and groups at risk.

Pneumococcus: An extension is included in the adult calendar in the vaccination recommendations of the conjugate vaccine against pneumococcus of 13 serotypes (NCV13): this vaccine will be administered to adults 60 years of age regardless of whether they belong to a group risk and if they have not previously administered.

Women between 18 and 45 years old:

VPH conized in the last 3 years by high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CIN 2 or higher; the vaccine will be administered as soon as possible after diagnosis.


In the Community of Madrid, citizens have different international vaccination health services where they can obtain comprehensive care and information before traveling abroad, regardless of their destination and whether vaccines are mandatory or recommended in these countries.

Vaccination during pregnancy

It is important for a woman of childbearing age to have her immunization schedule up to date. Before pregnancy, missing vaccines will be reviewed and administered to complete incorrect or not started guidelines.

Vaccines indicated:

Acellular whooping cough: It is indicated in each pregnancy between weeks 27-36 of it. In the cases of women with suspected preterm birth, it will be taken into account that it takes two weeks before delivery to reach levels of protection in the newborn. The vaccine, according to experts, is safe during pregnancy and manages to protect the baby from birth until the first dose is administered after two months.

Flu: All pregnant women should be vaccinated, at any time during pregnancy and especially if they are going to be in their second or third trimester of pregnancy in the seasonal flu season. The vaccine protects pregnant women from a disease that can be more serious and protects the newborn in the first months of life.

Recommended vaccines in special risk situations:

They are inactivated vaccines and are recommended after a thorough evaluation where the doctor decides their suitability. They are as follows: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Inactivated Polio. In case the mother is going to travel, the following vaccines are recommended, always under medical guidelines: Rabies, inactivated typhoid fever, Japanese and Central European encephalitis. Likewise, yellow fever is recommended, despite being made up of live viruses, whenever the woman travels to endemic areas with a risk of high contagion. If the woman is not pregnant and receives the vaccine, she should wait at least four weeks for conception.

Vaccines contraindicated:

All live virus vaccines are contraindicated such as: Triple viral, chickenpox, intranasal influenza (not marketed in Spain) or live bacilli such as BCG. All of them, if necessary, could be used after delivery, with the application of MMR and chicken pox recommended as soon as possible, since they do not interfere with breastfeeding.

Attention to the smoker (stopping smoking)

All smokers should know that quitting smoking is the healthiest decision they can make in their entire lives. When a smoker wants to quit smoking, they should go to a health professional for the most appropriate help.

All the primary care centers in the Community of Madrid are integrated into the Network of Health Centers without Smoke and in them the smoker will find health professionals willing to help him to quit smoking.

If you have any questions or want information, you can also call the help line for smokers, 900 124 365. It is a free telephone line that works 24 hours every day of the year.


Quitting smoking is possible, but we will not deny that it takes some effort. Now that you have the reasons, you must put the means. There are many ways to do this: alone, in a group, with psychological support, with drugs, nicotine patches or gum, by phone, by mail or online.

But they all have in common the need for you to be the one who is clearly determined to try, has prepared to choose the right time, and is determined to move on.

A good help may be the Decalogue to quit smoking proposed by the Spanish Society of Pneumology (SEPAR), which says the following:


  • Think about why you smoke every time you light a cigarette. Learn about tobacco.
  • Find your reasons to quit smoking. Write a list of them.
  • Find the situations you associate with smoking and avoid them. Always choose smoke-free environments.
  • Decide which day you quit smoking and tell your family and friends

ACTION PLAN: What to do on the first day?

  • On the first day, get up before the usual time and do a little physical exercise. Drink plenty of juice and water.
  • Stay as active as possible throughout the day. Your hands and your mouth must be busy. The fewer opportunities you have to miss a cigarette, the better.
  • Decide not to smoke, even if only today.


  • Practice some physical activity, better in a group, and eat a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. Frequently reread your list of reasons to quit smoking.
  • If you feel in an intermittent and very strong desire to smoke, don't worry. "Relax ... take a deep breath ... feel the pure, clean air invade your lungs ... hold it as long as you can inside ... take it out slowly. Concentrate on what you are doing." Repeat this several times. Desire decreases long after the second or third week.
  • Don't give in even for a single cigarette. Congratulate yourself every day that passes, because this time, you are sure to get to stop smoking.
  • Helps

    If you need help, don't worry, you are not alone on this journey. There are many people who are ready to help you. Today, all the Health Centers of the Community of Madrid and the professionals who work in them are ready to help you and advise you on the best option. Therefore, the first thing is to consult your family doctor and heed his advice.

    From the health center, they can refer you, if your case requires it, to the Specialized Smoking Unit, where they can provide you with specific treatment in case you need, for presenting other complications or the degree of your addiction, a more intensive approach.

    For any questions you wish to resolve, or if you need information regarding how to quit tobacco, you can consult the Community of Madrid's Help Line for smokers, 900 124 365. It is free, and it is open 24 hours a day, 7 days of the week, 365 days a year.

    Smoker's helpline: 900 124 365

    It is a free telephone line that works 24 hours every day of the year. In this phone, in addition to solving doubts and providing information, an appointment with the Primary Care nursing professional is provided to smokers who request a consultation to quit smoking.

    Habits for a good night's sleep

    Sleep is an essential activity for human beings. During sleep the body recovers to continue daily activity. Therefore, it is not only about sleeping, but about a quality sleep and sleeping the hours we need.

    Why should we maintain good sleeping habits?

    Getting enough sleep and restful sleep has benefits:

    • Increase your energy
    • Increase your attention
    • You're more creative
    • Improve your memory
    • Develop your performance
    • It causes fewer accidents
    • Reduces the risk of flu or cold.

    Between 6 and 21% of the working-age population has some sleep disturbance. And the older age they are, the higher risk.

    What can change to have a restful sleep?

    There are sleep hygiene techniques that make easier to start and maintain sleep:

    • Keep the same time schedules to get up and go to bed.
    • Practice sports often rather than sedentary activities
    • Feed yourself to improve your digestion.
    • Avoid alcoholic drinks and coffee.
    • Try to be relaxed and avoid thinking about problems during bedtime.
    • Maintain satisfactory relationships throughout the day to improve the state of mind.
    • Do not abuse of the use of screen displays before sleep, they do not stimulate sleep preparation.


    Workplace harassment or mobbing is the set of behaviors within a work environment that produce harassment of a worker, undermining his emotional state.

    It is an abusive conduct or psychological violence to which a person is systematically subjected in the workplace, especially manifested through repeated behaviors, words or attitudes that harm their dignity or mental integrity, and that endanger or degrade their working conditions.

    These harassment attitudes lead to the isolation of the interested party in the workplace, causing anxiety, stress, loss of self-esteem and psychosomatic disturbances, which may lead to the voluntary abandonment of his job because the pressure to which he is subjected is unsustainable.

    What to do if you identify mobbing?

    Identify the situation

    Consult with people you trust, from a safe and protective environment, who will help you understand the situation of harassment, advise you on your state of health and propose alternatives; to help you channel and understand the reason for the anguish you suffer. If you consider it prudent, contact your work manager or your company doctor. Count what happened; Remember that the company is responsible for the protection of your health (Occupational Risk Prevention Law).

    Keep a journal

    Write down the facts and names of the people who will serve as witnesses and help explain your situation. Consult the data obtained with someone you trust (perhaps your Primary Care Physician).

    Psychological bullying syndrome

    If you observe situations in your workplace against your person of clear inequality, attacks against your dignity or null valuation of the whole of your work, when you are sure of your ability and worth, you are being the victim of, at least, unfair pressure . If you think you are suffering from a psychological harassment syndrome, you should know the following:

    • You are suffering damage, possibly more than you think.
    • Your job is in jeopardy.

    Labor rights

    Find out about your labor rights listed in:

    • Status of workers
    • Law of prevention of labor risks
    • Collective agreement
    • Denuncie


    If you don't have positive results, report the situation.

    Mediation of the conflict

    In some cases the situation happens directly by confronting the person responsible for your harassment.

    Possible solutions may include an act of mediation in the conflict, of which you are the victim, through the organization of your company, as a responsibility you have to protect your health.

    Consult the prevention services of your company. They must take care of both the deterioration of their health and the last causes that cause the stress situation that leads to suffering a bullying syndrome

    Healthy eating habits

    It is essential for health to carry out a balanced and varied diet, which does not provide more calories than we spend and carries the necessary amount of fiber, vitamins and minerals and other micronutrients. A balanced diet not only protects you against excess weight, it is also very important to prevent arteriosclerosis, cancer, and maintain both physical and psychological health.

    What habits can I change to eat healthier?

    We live in a society with plenty of food, and in which it is easy to eat more calories than we spend. We eat quickly, often in a disorderly way, and foods with high calories and little nutritional value. Let's start the change:

    • Plan your meals and the purchase of food.
    • Learn to read the labels on the foods you buy.
    • Maintain order and regularly distribute food throughout the day.
    • Cook healthier, with less fat.
    • If you eat out, choose low-fat dishes and take smaller portions.
    • Moderate the size of the portions.
    • Eat slowly and chew food well; if not, it is very easy for you to overeat.
    • Sit down to eat and have all the food prepared on the tray or on the table.
    • Try to eat in a quiet environment and in the right place in the house. Eat with the family.
    • Avoid eating while watching TV, or using the computer, it is easy for you to overeat.

    Tips for eating out

    If you eat daily or frequently away from home, you must take care of what you choose to have a balanced diet. You can eat everything, but in moderate amounts. If you eat fatty, fried foods with sauces, pastries every day and you do not control the size of the servings, you will certainly gain weight.

    • Limits: fatty foods, sauces, mayonnaises, pastries, starches with sauces, fried foods, cheeses and cold cuts, butter, pates, chocolates, cakes and sweet desserts.
    • Choose: fish, shellfish, molluscs and other seafood. Grilled or low-fat meats and eggs. Seasonal salads, vegetables, legumes and natural fruit desserts. Bread in moderate quantities. Water, light soft drinks, natural juices without added sugar. Wine and beer very sparingly.
    • Control: the appetizer and its tapas. If you have an aperitif, choose the ones that are not very caloric: seafood, cooked molluscs, cuttlefish, octopus, tomato juice, olives, pickled products (pickles, banderillas.). Chips, nuts, cold cuts, cheeses, and fries take them in moderate amounts

    The impact of natural light on our quality of life

    Lighting is a fundamental part of ergonomic workplace conditioning. While humans have a great ability to adapt to different light qualities, a deficiency in it can lead to increased visual fatigue, a reduction in performance, an increase in errors and sometimes even accidents.

    An adequate analysis of the characteristics to be available to lighting systems, adaptation to the tasks to be carried out and individual characteristics are fundamental aspects to consider.

    What are the advantages of daylight?

    • It produces less tiredness in sight.
    • It allows you to appreciate the colors as they are.
    • It is more affordable.
    • Psychologically, a contact with the outside through a window produces an increase in well-being.
    • Except in specific situations where the worker is in a certain position and has a beam of light directly, natural lighting often produces tolerable glare.

    How can we achieve adequate lighting?

    When referring to lighting, it should be considered both natural lighting and artificial lighting. When designing a workspace, both should always be considered.

    Artificial lighting should be used when natural light cannot be used or, as in most cases, to complement natural light. The quality of artificial light will be better the closer that light spectrum to which the sun produces.

    Natural light causes less visual fatigue than artificial lighting. For this reason, techniques have been developed today to maximize the use of natural light. Many work center projects consider skylights, floor-to-ceiling windows, etc.

    The relationship between circadian rhythm and health

    Circadian rhythms are physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a daily cycle, and that respond mainly to light and darkness in an organism's environment. Circadian rhythms are found in most living things, including animals, plants and many tiny microbes.

    How do we maintain a proper circadian rhythm?

    There are natural factors in the body that produce circadian rhythms. However, there are signs of the environment that can also affect. The main sign that influences circadian rhythms is daylight, it can turn on and off the genes that control the molecular structure of biological clocks. The change of light-dark cycles can speed up, slow down or restart circadian rhythms.

    What do circadian rhythms influence?

    Circadian rhythms can influence sleep-wake cycles, hormone secretion, eating habits and digestion, body temperature and other important body functions. Irregular rhythms have been linked to several chronic medical conditions, including sleep disorders, obesity, diabetes, depression, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder.

    Is there a relationship between our circadian rhythm and our sleep?

    Circadian rhythms help us determine our sleep patterns. The body's main clock controls the production of melatonin, a hormone that prepares us for sleep. This clock receives information about the light that enters through the optic nerves, which transmit information from the eyes to the brain. When there is less light it sends signals to the brain to produce more melatonin.

    Some researchers study how shift work and light exposure of mobile devices at night can alter circadian rhythms and sleep-wake cycles.

    What habits can we maintain to synchronize with our circadian rhythm?

    • Keep healthy eating habits
    • Exercise daily
    • Reduce stress during the day
    • Perform creative activities
    • Avoid using electronic devices with screens before bed
    • Keep a regular bedtime
    • Prepare the sleep environment to be comfortable while sleeping

    Prevention of chronic diseases

    The impact of chronic diseases is growing steadily in many low- and middle-income countries.

    The need to anticipate and understand the relevance of chronic diseases and to urgently intervene against them is an increasingly important issue. To do this, national leaders in a position to strengthen chronic disease prevention and control activities, as well as the international public health community, need to take a new approach.

    As a first step, it is essential to communicate the latest and most accurate information and knowledge to direct care healthcare professionals and the public.

    The problem

    • 80% of deaths from chronic diseases occur in low- and middle-income countries, and these deaths affect men and women equally.
    • The threat is increasing: the number of affected individuals, families and communities is increasing.
    • This growing threat constitutes an underestimated cause of poverty and hinders the economic development of many countries.

    The solution

    • The threat posed by chronic diseases can be overcome from knowledge we already have.
    • The solutions are effective, and also highly cost-effective.
    • Successful, comprehensive and integrated action at the country level, led by governments, is required

    The goal

    • An additional 2% annual reduction in global death rates from chronic diseases over the next 10 years.
    • This will prevent 36 million premature deaths by 2015.
    • We already have the necessary scientific knowledge to achieve this goal.

    Cardiovascular risk factors

    Cardiovascular risk factors are those personal circumstances or habits that are associated with a greater probability of suffering cardiovascular disease. Some can be prevented by modifying habits, such as smoking or sedentary lifestyle, and others require treatment such as cholesterol level, diabetes or heart rate problems.

    Benefits of doing physical exercise

    Leading an active life improves health and well-being at any age, in addition to promoting healthy aging in adults.

    In general, having an active life that includes physical exercise helps prevent health problems:

    • Relieves stress, reduces anxiety symptoms, and improves sleep quality.
    • Reduces the risk of depression.
    • Helps control body weight.
    • Prevents muscular diseases and osteoporosis.
    • Reduces blood pressure.
    • Reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancer.
    • It improves the evolution of some chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and obesity.

    Overweight and obesity

    Overweight and obesity are key risk factors for the development of many chronic diseases and other health problems, highlighting diabetes, hypertension, increased cholesterol, brain and cardiovascular diseases, osteoarthritis, digestive diseases such as hiatus hernia. , reflux and liver conditions, endocrine diseases such as polycystic ovary and infertility, high risk pregnancies, severe psychological problems, and many types of cancer such as colon, breast, endometrial, etc.

    Can excess weight be prevented?

    To prevent this situation, it is very important to learn to eat in a healthy way, be less sedentary, maintain a physically active life, manage stress and get enough sleep.

    Are there any measures I can monitor to prevent excess weight?

    Overweight does not appear overnight, and prior to being obese we have been going through different degrees of overweight. Watch your weight all your life. Weigh yourself at least once a month, if you are gaining weight, follow the advice given and if you are not able to control it, consult soon..

    When is it important to prevent excess weight?

    Preventing and controlling excess weight is very important at all stages of life to maintain good health and prevent other diseases. There are certain situations that favor weight gain and in which more attention must be paid, for example: some diseases and drugs, pregnancy, menopause, stress, incorporation into the world of work or the change of city or country of residence.

    What if I am already overweight or obese?

    You don't have to look for an "ideal weight" or "impossible". If you are already overweight or obese, not gaining more weight and achieving small weight losses (5-10% of current weight) and maintained over time, will produce great benefits for your health. You will greatly reduce the risk of other diseases and greatly improve the control of these, for example, if you already have type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure.

    How can I get better overweight or obesity?

    You will have to change some of your life habits and, to be successful in your goals, keep these changes. Any change takes effort. It requires you to convince yourself of the benefits it will have for your health and to motivate yourself to maintain those changes.

    How much weight should I lose and in how long?

    You have to set reasonable and realistic goals for weight. Talk it over with your doctor. Better that the losses are slow, since the important thing is to lose fat and with very restrictive or unbalanced diets, a lot of muscle mass is also lost, which is harmful. Keep in mind that weight problems are chronic so there will be times when you gain weight more easily, but this is reversible. Therefore, never give up control of your weight.

    What are biological agents?

    Biological agents are a set of living organisms capable of causing alterations in exposed workers such as infections, allergy or toxicity. The professionals who tend to be most exposed are health workers, farmers, ranchers, miners, food and textile workers.

    What types of biological agents are there?

    • Bacteria
    • Fungi
    • Parasites
    • Prions (unconventional infectious agents)
    • Cell cultures

    What is the transmission focus?

    • Water
    • Air
    • Soil
    • Animals
    • Food

    Some tips to avoid risk:

    • Avoid inappropriate behavior that involves unnecessary exposure or contact with risky biological agents.
    • Wear personal protective equipment (PPE): boots, gloves, masks, goggles, gown, etc.
    • Follow established prevention measures: do not smoke, do not drink, do not eat at work, observe proper personal hygiene before performing risky activities.
    • Report any accidental exposure.
    • Follow regular medical checkups, comply with specific vaccination programs, and consult your prevention service's health care staff for any alterations you detect.